Election Process

Subject: Social Studies

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Election is a democratic process in which the eligible citizens (18 years of age) of a country choose a person or member or representative for national and local level. This note has information about general election process.

Election Process

Election is necessary to choose a representative by the people in the federal, state and local levels of the government. Election is a democratic process in which the eligible citizens (18 years of age) of a country choose a person or member or representative for national and local level. Nepal holds election forthe posts of President, Vice President, State Representatives, and Local Level Representatives. The election is conducted by the Election Commission.

Electoral Roll / Electoral Register

It is the name of list of the people who have the right to vote in the election. The Election Commission prepares it every year including the name of eligible voters who are above 18 years of age as started by the commission.


Voters ID Card

This is necessary for any voter to get teh right to vote. This contains the name,  address, identification number and photo of the voter.


Ballot Paper

A piece of paper prepared by Election Commission containing names or symbols of candidates for an election is called Ballot paper.


Ballot box:

A ballot box is a box made specially to keep the ballot paper after casting the vote.

Polling Centers:

A polling center is the designated area where people go to vote in the election. When setting the polling center, they pay attention over distance, easiness for voters, management of security and transportation, etc.

Sub-polling centers:

A polling centers might have the capacity of casting votes of 1200 people. If the number of voters is more than the capacity of polling centers, the sub polling centers are set up as required.


Qualifications of the Candidates

Certain age requirements  must be fulfilled to be a candidate of any level of the government.

  1. President/Vice President - 45 years of age.
  2. Federal Representative - 25 years for federal and 35 for national government.
  3. State Council Representative - 25 years of age.
  4. Village Committee Mayor, Vice Mayor, Members - 21 years of age.


Federal Represenatative Qualifications:

  1. Should be a citizen of Nepal.
  2. Should not be punished for any criminal offense.
  3. Should not be disqualified by the law of Nepal.
  4. Should not hold any public post paid from the state treasure.





Election Bodies

According to the present constitution, there are three bodies of election and they are:

A. Election Commission:

This is the permanent body of election lies in the center, which consists of Chief Election Commissioner and other commissioners. It conducts all types of election fairly and impartially. During the election, it appoints the election officers in every election constituency.

 B. Election Officers:

After the declaration of the date of election, Election Commission appoints the election officers. The persons who are the government job holders can be appointed as the election officers.

C. Polling Officers:

They are appointed by the election officers and from among the civil servants or government employees during the election.




  1. To make necessary arrangements in polling and sub-polling centers.
  2. To arrange security personals.
  3. To begin the election in scheduled time with legal process.
  4. To postpone or cancel the election if necessary.





Types of election

i. General election

ii. Local election

iii. Referendum

iv. Mid-term election

v. By-election


i. General election:

The election in which representatives for national level or the parliament are elected is known as general election. It is held after end of every 5 or 6 years.


ii. Local election:

The election where the representatives of local bodies like DDC, VDC, municipalities, etc. are elected is known as local election.


iii. Referendum:

The process of deciding any important issue by the popular participation of citizens during voting is called referendum. In this process, the citizens have to choose one out of two options.


iv. Mid-term election:

The election which takes place before the end of the set tenure because of the dismissal of the members of legislative body is known as mid -term election.

v. By election:

The re-election that is conducted because of death or resignation of the legislative or local members is known as by election.

Things to remember
  • Election is a democratic process in which the eligible citizens (18 years of age) of a country choose a person or member or representative for national and local level.
  • Types of election are general election, local election, mid-term election, by-election.
  • According to the present constitution, there are three bodies of election and they are Election Commission, Election officers and Polling officers.
  • It includes every relationship which established among the people.
  • There can be more than one community in a society. Community smaller than society.
  • It is a network of social relationships which cannot see or touched.
  • common interests and common objectives are not necessary for society.
Videos for Election Process
Traditional Street Theater Educates About Nepal's Voting Registration Process
Questions and Answers

Bio-metric voter's list is need in Nepal to minimize proxy voting.

Elections regarding Constituently Assembly frequently happened due to the failure of the Constituent Assembly of 2046. So, to draft new constitution from the representative of people, it was an essence for the condition.

In my view, proportional election system is appropriate in Nepal because voice of minor groups and small political parties can be addressed in a proportionate manner.

According to the existing law of Nepal, the four bases to disqualify the candidate in the election of constituent assembly are:

  1. If the candidate is not the Nepali citizen or does not have his/her name in the electoral roll.
  2. If he/she is ever punished for a criminal offence.
  3. If he/she is disqualified by any law of Nepal.
  4. If he/she has held a postpaid from the state treasure.
To conduct the constituent assembly election 2070 BS peacefully, fairly and impartially, the following sorts of arrangement were made:

  1. A large number of security forces were mobilized to stop unwanted activities regarding voters and candidates.
  2. Different organizations and individuals were permitted to observe and evaluate the activities of election which helped it to be more peaceful and impartial.
  3. Voters education and unbiased officials were in the priority of the election commission, which helped election to be fails and more impartial.
  4. It was the second election held for constituent assembly on fourth mangsir, 2070. It was considered as the peaceful, fair and impartial as about 80% people voted freely for their candidate.
The rules and regulations developed by the Election Commission for conducting election activities in free, fair and impartial ways are termed as Election code of conduct. They were applicable for political parties and their candidates, government of Nepal and its ministers, organizations and local administrative bodies owned by the government and the mass Medias.
Development of Election code of conduct and proper implementation is necessary for making the election process successful and let the public practice all the democratic norms and values fearlessly. The need of Election code of conduct is as follows:
They regulate the activities of the political parties and their candidates and others for systematic performances.
The election happens to be free and fair if the code of conduct is followed strictly
It controls different malpractices that influence the election process.
To ensure that every voter has no problem of taking part in election and not be influenced of crazy works of the political parties and their candidates.
In accordance with the election code of conduct, the following activities were not to be done by the political parties and their candidates.

  1. A candidate could not spend more than a maximum of Rs. 1 billion for his/her election campaign.
  2. Anyone, except security forces could not use helicopters or plane for publicity except those 11 remote districts where road transport is difficult.
  3. The political parties and their candidates, or any other were prohibited from influencing the voters in the name of election by providing them with money or any facility.
  4. A rally or mass meeting should not abstract the movement of people and vehicles and had to not involve any weapons.
The following terms and conditions should the people in the community who are eligible for adult franchise to the enlisted in the voter's list:
  1. According to the existing rule of the election commission of Nepal, the one who has completed the age of sixteen and having the certificate of Nepali citizen can be enlisted in the voter's list.
  2. But to be eligible to cast vote in the election having the certificate of Nepali citizen and enlisting in the voter's list is not enough, for this he/she has to complete the age of 18 besides, enlisting in the voter's list.
The following efforts have been made in Nepal to raise awareness towards election:

  1. Public speaking: Various programmes are organized in different places in different places of Nepal for public speaking. People from different sectors like civil society, students, teachers, civil servant, and farmer take part in the public speaking about creating awareness regarding election and to understand the value of their vote in the election.
  2. Mass meeting: The political parties of Nepal and other independent candidates organized mass meeting to address the people. They express their plan, policies programmes and distribute election to the people which helot to build up public awareness.
  3. Election campaigns: Election campaigns organized by the political parties' independent candidates, election commission are very useful to raise awareness towards election.
  4. Publicity: The election commission, the political parties and the independent candidates raise public awareness by publishing their activities.

Yes, many ballot papers are invalid in Nepal as a result of improper stamps. The followings things should be done to control it.

  1. Providing training to the people to put seal correctly.
  2. Educating people to tick against the candidates' name.
  3. Managing good furniture to keep ballot paper and put seal on it, and
  4. Making wider margin between two symbols.

The following things must be done to make the general election impartial, free, fair and effective:

  1. The police force must be made stronger.
  2. Electronic voting system must be started.
  3. The polling officer and other employees relating to election must be properly trained.
  4. The electoral roll must be free of any sorts of errors.
  5. Voter's identity card must be duly used so that one person cannot cast vote twice.
  6. The ballot box must be kept safe unless the votes are completely counted.
  7. All the underground and armed political forces must be encouraged to become the complete follower of competitive political system and not to launch any activity against impartial, free, fair and effective election.
  8. Votes must be fairly counted.

The five qualifications of the candidate in the national election are as follows: -

  1. Must be a citizen of Nepal: This is the first and the foremost qualification of the candidate in the national election. He/she must be a citizen of Nepal to contest the national election. An alien or a foreigner is not allowed to contest in the national election as he/she does not enjoy political rights and owe loyalty to the nation.
  2. Must have age of 25 years: In order to contest the national election, candidate must have the age of 25 years otherwise he/she is not allowed to contest in the national election. The candidate who is below 25 years is considered as minors or immature and are not allowed to stand in the election.
  3. Must not have been against the sovereignty and integrity of the nation: He/she must not have behaved against the sovereignty of the nation. If the activities of the candidate are found against the sovereignty and national integrity then he/she is not allowed to contest in an election. Moreover, he/she must be always ready for the sake of the nation.
  4. Must not be engaged in any criminal activities: The candidate must not have been engaged in any criminal activities such as murdering, smuggling, trafficking, etc. which lead to an obstacle for the preservation of sovereignty of the nation. Therefore, in order to contest in the national election, he/she must not have been engaged in any criminal activities.
  5. Has not held any beneficial post or government offices: This is one of the qualifications of the candidate who contest the national election. If the candidate has held any beneficial post or government offices then he/she is not allowed to contest in the national election.

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