Geographical Studies of our Earth

Subject: Social Studies

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Lesson Info

  • Notes 16
  • Videos 75
  • Exercises 121
  • Practice Test 94
  • Skill Level Medium


After complete this lesson, student must be able to:
  • List the types tropical monsoon climate, tropical torrid zone and polar zone.
  • Explain about tropical grassland climate savanna type.
  • Describe about location, area and climatic condition of tropical desert climate.
  • Explain the features about tropical monsoon and temperate climate.
  • Explain Information about natural vegetation zone.
  • Explain the major  feature of South America, North America and Africa.
  • Explain the Nepal's  diplomatic relationship with the USA and Canada.
  • Explain about  earthquake and purpose of a map.


Lifestyle in the Tropical Zone

  • The people in the Equitorial Eastern Island Corridor have modern lifestyle. They are the permanent inhabitants and are involved in industries and services for income generation as this place has a large number of industries.
  • The people are literate and well developed; science and technology are well developed there.
  • The people living in this climatic region export copper, iron, tin, uranium etc to the European countries.
  • The people in the Equatorial Amazon and Congo Basin have primitive lifestyle. Most of them are nomadic inhabitants.
  • They are involved in hunting wild animals, gathering wild fruits and edible roots for survival.
  • They are illiterate and undeveloped due to lack of contact with the modern world. Pursue tribe are involved in shifting agriculture in this region.
  • People in the Tropical Grassland Climatic Area have a nomadic life.
  • The people of that region keep cows, buffaloes, goats etc. for milk and blood only. They travel time to time with their families and cattle in search of grass and water.
  • But nowadays, most of the people live permanently there as the government has established national parks, wild life reserves.
  • They have been involving in tourism sectors, commercial farming, animal husbandry, lodging and managing hotels, etc.
  • Tourism development is one of the major industries which can attract a large number of tourists. Animal husbandry can be developed as there are large land areas with hygienic grass. Commercial farming can be developed as the land is fertile and agriculture products can be high. Many hotels and lodges can be opened as large numbers of tourist visit here
  • Lifestyle in the Tropical Desert Areas are Gypsy people. They have nomadic lifestyle.
  • They roam from one place to other with their camels in search of food and water. The people have permanent settlement in the areas where water is available.
  • The people rear camels, goats and other domestic animals for meat, milk and means of transportation.
  • Some people are involved in agriculture, industries and services and grow dates, palm, wheat, cotton, maize, sugarcane and vegetables.
  • Tropical Monsoon Climate Area has dense population and it affects the agricultural practice of the people residing in this area.
  • The soil is suitable for the cultivation of cash crops like rice, maize, millet, sugarcane and jute.
  • Besides agriculture, people are engaged in animal rearing, fishing etc.
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Temperate Zone

  • Temperate zone extends between latitudes 30° and 60° North and South of the equator and have hot dry summer and mild, wet winter.
  • There are 4 distinct and different climates across the temperate zone. They are Temperate Mediterranean, Temperate Grassland, Temperate Oceanic and Temperate Monsoon Climates.
  • The Mediterranean region is found in the countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea like Central California, Central Chile, Cape Province, South Western and Western Australia.
  • The temperate grassland climate can be found between the Rocky Mountains in the west to the Great Lakes Region in the east in North America, Uruguay and Argentina in South America, between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea in the west to Lake Balkhash and parts of North China in the East.
  • The temperate oceanic climate can be found in St. Lawrence basin in North America, northern China, Manchuria, Korea and northern Japan.
  • The temperate monsoon climate can be found in North and South China, Southern Japan and Korea, South East USA, South Brazil and North Argentina, south-east coastal region of Africa and New South Wales and Queensland of Australia.
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Lifestyle in the Temperate Zone

  • The Lifestyle in the Mediterranean Zone is moderate as the area is thickly populated, and has agricultural land and occupies 1% of total world land.
  • Agriculture is the main occupation of people where they grow wheat, maize, olives, etc. and it produces 70% of the world's export of fruits like oranges, lemon, grapes, apricots, etc.
  • Other occupations are wine making, marketing, gardening, animal husbandry, mining and fishing, etc.
  • Lifestyle in the Temperate Grassland Zone is diverse as are the people residing in this region.
  • Native Americans are hunters and eat bison antelope, elk and other wild animals. Hottentots of Africa still live a nomadic life.
  • Agriculture is also one of the major occupations of people where they mostly grow wheat and maize. The region is also the largest producer and exporter of wheat in the world.
  • The lifestyle in the Temperate Monsoon Climate is good as this region has the most productive parts with adequate rainfall, no prolonged droughts and warm cold season.
  • Agriculture is the main occupation of the people residing in this region. Paddy is the main crop, while other crops like rice, tea, mulberries, etc. are also grown.
  • The lifestyle in the Temperate Oceanic Zone is good as the area is close to the seas and has sustained the people of the area with ease.
  • The oceans and seas provide with food as well as tourism industry and other various sources. The temperature is moderate and the people have fishing, industries, etc. as their occupations.
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Africa is the world's second largest continent. Algeria is Africa's largest country by area, and Nigeria by population. This note has information about Africa, its political composition and physical division.

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Natural Disasters: Earthquake and Tsunami

The shaking or jerking motion of the earth surface vertically or horizontally is called an earthquake. This note has information about the causes of earthquake, earthquake-prone zones, the effects of the earthquake and different terms related to the earthquake.

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Different Mapping Techniques and Practical Modern Mapping Technologies

A map may be defined as the representation of the earth's surface with standard signs, drawn to a scale so that each and every point on it corresponds to the actual position or things on the ground. This note has information on the communication through maps.

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World Climate and Affecting Factors

A climate region is the part of the world where more or less the same kind of climate, soil and vegetation are found and where people's economic activities are similar. This note has information about climate and natural vegetation including the factors affecting the climate.

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Tropical Zone

  • Equatorial Climate Zone lies between 0° to 5° latitude in both hemispheres and is found in Amazon Basin and Guinea Coast in South America, Congo Basin and Guinea Coast in Africa, Malaysia and East Indies.
  • The equatorial region is rich in various species of wild birds and animals and about 90% of the living species of the world are found here.
  • These regions do not experience any season as they have hot and wet climate throughout the year.
  • There is dense evergreen forest with tall, big and hard wood trees because of the everlasting hot and wet climate throughout the year.
  • Tropical grassland climatic region is found between 5° to 20° Latitude in both hemispheres and is situated between the hot desert in the north and equatorial climate in the south.
  • Brazilian Highlands, parts of Bolivia, Paraguay and Argentina in South America, Sudan, Senegal, Queensland of Australia, Cuba, Jamaica and Pacific islands in Central America are the major areas found in this region.
  • As the land is fertile there because of the humus grass, the land has been covered by the tall and dense grasses which are about 10 ft. tall.
  • The elephant grass is about 4m tall and have long roots which help them to take the required minerals for their growth and development.
  • Umbrella shaped and scattered trees are only found there because of dry land.
  • Millions of animals of different species such as lions, tigers, rhinoceros, zebra, elephants, giraffe, etc. are found here. It is also the home of many birds like ostrich, emus, etc.
  • Tropical hot desert lies between 20° and 30° latitudes especially, in the northern hemispheres. 
  • Sahara and Kalahari deserts in Africa, Arabian, Iranian and Thar Deserts in Asia, Arizona and Mexican deserts in North America, The great Australian desert in Australia etc. are the major areas found in this region.
  • Most of the desert animals are small and move about only in the cool hours of night or early in the morning. They live in the burrows during the days and come out at night to eat the leaves of the vegetation found there.
  • Oasis is the place or area where water is found in the desert.
  • The tropical monsoon climate extends between 5° and 30° latitude. It covers most of India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Thailand and other parts of Asia and Northern Australia.
  • In summer, the rain bearing winds blow from sea to land, and dry winds blow from land to sea in winter.
  • The natural vegetation mostly comprises of deciduous forest, but others are also present.
  • Evergreen forests are found in areas with rainfall over 200cm, deciduous forests in areas with 100cm to 200cm rainfall, and tall grasses and thorny shrubs in areas with less than 100cm rainfall.
  • Wild animals like leopards, tigers, monkeys, etc are found in this region. Species of birds like peacocks, hornbill, parrot, etc. are abundant. Reptiles like snakes, alligators, crocodiles, lizards, etc. are also found in this region.
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North America: Social and Economic Activities

The people living in the North America are involved in different economic activities like Animal husbandry, Industries, Services, Farming, Fishing etc. This note has information about economic activities and natural resources of North America.

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South America

South America is the 4th largest continent according to the land mass. It has an area of about 17.6 million This note has information about physical feature of South America.

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North and South America, Africa and Nepal

Nepal has a good diplomatic relationship with countries of North America, South America and Africa. This note has information about two Americas, Africa and Nepal.

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Africa: Social and Economic Activities

Africa is multi-racial continent because there are more than 800 black African races. The population of the modern time also includes white people from other continents. This note has information about African people and their economic activities.

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Vegetation and Wildlife in the World

The zone in which vegetation has grown by itself with the help of rainfall, sunlight and all the other elements without special maintenance or raising by humans is called natural vegetation zone. This note provides an information about the natural vegetation zone of the world.

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Polar Zone

Siberian climate stretches between 60°N and 70°N latitudes in the northern part of the continents. This climate is not found in the Southern Hemisphere. This note has information about Siberian climate of the polar zone.

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South America: Social and Economic Activities

South America is a land of superlatives. It has quite different types of landform, climate and vegetation. This note has information about the resources of South America and its economic activities.

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Activities in the Polar Zone

  • The polar region is extremely cold and therefore there are not many people living in the area.
  • The North Pole is nearer to Canada and Russia.
  • In rural parts there, the Eskimo and the Inuit people live a nomadic lifestyle. The lifestyle here is backwards because of limited resources and less exposure to the outside world.
  • The people live in Igloos, and fish and hunt using weapons like spears, knives, ropes and arrows. Their clothes are made from leather and fur from polar bears and seals.
  • Due to cold, there is no farming but some flowers bloom in the North Pole in the summer.
  • Canada, Russia and other European countries are trying to modernize their respective areas.
  • The lower parts of this area from Canada to Russia have the Boreal Forest. It is also known as Taiga Forest. It is very important from the economic perspective. It is used to prepare paper and the pulp to make paper.
  • There is no human settlement in the South Pole, but there are big laboratories and research centers built by big countries.
  • Even though the area is dark and extremely cold, penguins can be found here. Penguins stay in groups and feed on fishes.
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