South America

Subject: Social Studies

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South America is the 4th largest continent according to the land mass. It has an area of about 17.6 million This note has information about physical feature of South America.

South America

South America is the 4th largest continent according to land mass. It has an area of 17.6 million sq. km (17,832,000 km2). It is location: 12°27' north to 55°59' south latitude and 34°41' west to 81°2' west longitude. It is bounded by The Atlantic Ocean in the east, The Pacific Ocean in the west, The Panama Canal and Caribbean Sea in the north, and The Antarctic Ocean in the south. There are 12 countries with 4 territories in the region. It occupies 12% of the world's landmass. The Red Indians are the oldest natives of the continent.

The major rivers in the continent are The Amazon River, which is the biggest, widest and second longest river of the world, Parana River, San Francisco River, Orinoco River, Paraguay River, etc. The mountain ranges here are the Andes Mountain Range, which is the longest mountain range of the world that stretches 7,000 km nearly along the coast from north to south, the Brazilian Highland, the Guiana Island, Mt. Aconcagua, which is the highest peak in South America and has a height of 6960m, Mt. Cotopaxi, Mt. Khinbozaro, Mt. Corupuna, etc.

The Titicaca Lake is the largest lake at the highest altitude, 160 km, lies along the Peru-Bolivian border. The Atacama Desert is the driest place in the world. The Cape Horn is the wildest and stormiest place of the world. The Amazon forest is the largest rainforest of the world.

South America has some unique physical features. They are divided into three physical regions:

  1. The Andes Region:

    The region lies to the West of the continent. Andes Mountain Chain is the longest mountain chain of the world which lies in this region. It stretches about 7200 km from Venezuela in the north to the Southernmost part (Cape Horn) of Chile in the South. The altitude of the mountains decreases from north to south. The Atacama Desert also lies in this region. Similarly, Lake Titicaca, the largest fresh water and Navigable Lake, situated at the highest altitude also lies here. The major peaks are Mt. Aconcagua, Mt. Cotopaxi, Mt. Chimborazo, Coropuna, etc. is also located in this region.
  2. The Central Lowland Region:

    The Central lowland lies in between Western Mountain Region and Eastern Highlands. It has covered almost half territory of South America. They are drained by river Orinoco in the North, river Amazon and its tributaries in the center, and Parana-Paraguay River has formed a fertile plain in the Pampas. It has provided irrigation facility to the Pampas Grassland for cultivation.
  3. The Eastern Highlands Region:

    The Eastern Highlands consist of two major highlands. There are Guiana Highlands in the South and Brazilian Highland in the North-East. These Highlands are older than Andes. To the Southeast part of Brazilian Highlands, there lies a fertile plain. Major cities of Brazil are also located here.


Things to remember
  • Size: 4th largest continent
  • Area: 1.6 million
  • Political Composition: 12 countries with 4 territories
  • The Amazon River , The Andes Mountain Range, Mt. Aconcagua etc are found in South America.
  • South America has unique physical features.
  • It includes every relationship which established among the people.
  • There can be more than one community in a society. Community smaller than society.
  • It is a network of social relationships which cannot see or touched.
  • common interests and common objectives are not necessary for society.
Videos for South America
Geography of Latin America Overview
Guiana Highlands
Physical and Political Geography of South America
Physical Geography of South America
Rounding Cape Horn
Questions and Answers

Selves are the area of vastly covered equatorial rain forest in the Amazon basin of South America.

Brazil has been using alcohol in a special type of motorcar which is produced from sugarcane. It has helped to decrease the import of petrol. We can utilize water resources, herbs, oil of nuts and sugarcane to decrease the import of petrol.

The three major physical divisions of South America are:

  1. The Andes Mountain
  2. The Central Plains
  3. The Eastern Highlands

The name two big countries situated in South America are Brazil and Argentina.

Calama in Atacama Desert is the driest place in the world.

The amazing facts of South America continent are given below:

  1. The largest mountain chain in the world the Andes stretches nearly 7000 km from north to south of this continent.
  2. The highest lake in the world Lake Titicaca is located at the latitude of 2,812 m.
  3. The largest rain forest is that of the Amazon Basin in Brazil.
  4. The highest water fall in the world is the 979 m high Angel Falls in Venezuela.
  5. The wildest, stromiest stretch of sea is Cape Horn at the southern tip of the continent.
  6. The biggest tortoise, 1.5 m long, live on the Galapagoes Islands.

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