World Climate and Affecting Factors

Subject: Social Studies

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A climate region is the part of the world where more or less the same kind of climate, soil and vegetation are found and where people's economic activities are similar. This note has information about climate and natural vegetation including the factors affecting the climate.

World Climate and Affecting Factors

A particular type of vegetation grows in a particular climate. If we make a world tour we will notice different types of vegetation in different parts of the world. For example, the vegetation of the equatorial climate is different from the vegetation of the tropical monsoon climate. But the same type of vegetation is found throughout the tropical monsoon region. Although changes have occurred in the natural vegetation due to the change in climate, environmental deterioration and human activities, we can still see certain patterns of vegetation and wildlife zones protected by climate.


Polar Zone

Tundra or Polar Climate

70° to 90° North

Cool Temperate Oceanic Climate

60° to 70° North

Temperate Zone

Cool Temperate Oceanic Climate

Temperate Grassland Climate

St. Lawrence or Manchurian Climate

45° to 60° North

Mediterranean Climate

Temperate Desert Climate

China Type of Climate

30° to 45° North

Tropical Zone

Tropical Desert Climate

Tropical Monsoon Climate

20° to 30° North

Tropical Grassland Climate

5° to 20° North

Equatorial Climate

0° to 5° North



Factors affecting climate:

Many factors affect climate. Among them, three factors that affect climate are as follows:


The height measured from sea level is called altitude. At low altitude there is thick mass of air which can absorb sufficient amount of sun heat, so it is hot at low altitude. However, when the altitude increases, the temperature also gradually decreases. Therefore, at high altitude there is very thin mass of air which cannot absorb sufficient amount of sun's heat, so it is cold at high altitude. The temperature decreases by 10C when the altitude increases by 160 m to 165m.


It is one most important factor that affects the climate of a particular place. When the latitude increases, the distant from the sun also increases, so the temperature gradually decreases. The equator lies very near from the sun, so direct ray falls over there and it is very hot throughout the year. But poles lie far from the sun. So, slanting rays fall over there and it is very cold. So, it is cold winter is dominant throughout the year. No plants and animals can survive on poles particularly South Pole.

Distance From The Sea and Ocean

Summer: During summer, the earth lies near the sun, so the perpendicular sun rays fall over there. The water of sea or ocean gets heated, and cools down slowly in comparison to land. In comparison with water, land gets heated faster and cools down fast. As the distance from the sea or ocean increases, the temperature increases. During summer, due to direct fall of sun rays over the sea or ocean, the water is evaporated that causes highest rainfall in this season.

Winter: During winter, the earth lies a little bit far from the sun. So, slanting sun rays fall over the earth. As, we know that, water absorbs more sun heat than the land. So, when the distance from the sea or ocean increases, the temperature gradually decreases as the land cools down fast. Due to less slanting rays during winter, less rainfall takes place as less evaporation takes place. Due to which the days in winter are shorter than in summer and less rainfall takes place.

Mountain Range

When there is a mountain range in the path of humid air passing, the area behind the mountain range is dry, and the area ahead has monsoon climate. This is why the humid air from the Bay of Bengal can’t reach Tibet and is dry, whereas Nepal has monsoon climate.


Dry air travelling through an area makes the climate dry, and humid wind makes the area cooler.


Areas with many types of vegetation have humid air while areas with no vegetation become dry.


The color of soil also affects the climate in a way. The areas with black soil have warmer climate and areas with white soil have colder climate.






Tropical Monsoon Climate:

This kind of climate is found up to the altitude of 1200 m from the sea level. 300C to 420C temperature in summer and 150C in winter. Average temperature is 1200 cm yearly.


Warm Temperate:

It is found 1200m to 2100m of Chure and Mahabharat range. Temperature is 150C in summer and 50C in winter. Rainfall is 250cm in southern belt and 100cm in northern.


Cold Temperate:

It is found from 2100m - 3350m. Temperature is around 100C to 150C in summer and falls to 00C in winter. Rainfall is less than 50 cm.


Alpine Climate:

It is found from 3350m-5000m. Maximum temperature is around 100C in summer but other time falls below the freezing point. Rainfall is about 30cm whole year.


Polar climate:

This temperature is found above 5000 m. Under this climate, temperature always remains below 00C.Whole the year snowfalls.


Sub tropical forest:

It is found up to 1200m of chure range. Sufficient rainfall and temperature (thick, tall, strong, evergreen trees, Sal, Sisau, Khayar, Seemal, etc.)


Temperate deciduous forest:

This type of climate is found from 1200m-2100m. It lies at upper part of Chure to lower part of Mahabharat range. Due to frost, leaves of the trees fall during winter, mixed forest of deciduous and coniferous trees.


Temperate coniferous evergreen forest:

This type of climate is found from 2100m-3350m i.e. from upper to Mahabharat range to lower of Himalayan range. Soft needle shaped trees are found in this region. For example Champ, Salla, Deodar, Dhupi, Simal, etc.


Alpine vegetation:

It is found from 3550m - 5000m. In this region less temperature and less rainfall is found. Thus, here are no strong and tall trees.


Tundra vegetation:

This type of vegetation is found above 5000 m. Excessive snowfall and steep land covered with snow. Throughout the year, only mosses and lichens are found.

Things to remember
  • Different climate and temperature is found at different regions.
  • Tropical monsoon climate is found up to altitude of 1200 m .
  • Warm temperature is found 1200 m to 2100 m of chure and Mahabharat range.
  • Cold temperature is found from 2100 m to 3350 m.
  • Alpine climate is found from 3350 m to 5000 m.
  • Polar climate is found above 5000 m.
  • Factors affecting climate are altitude, latitude and distance from the sea and ocean.
  • It includes every relationship which established among the people.
  • There can be more than one community in a society. Community smaller than society.
  • It is a network of social relationships which cannot see or touched.
  • common interests and common objectives are not necessary for society.
Videos for World Climate and Affecting Factors
Alpine Climate (HD1080p)
Climates of the world
Five Factors that Affect Climate
Life in the Polar Regions
Temperate Climate
The Monsoon Project
Questions and Answers

The major factor that affects the climate of Nepal is altitude.

The tropical zone with rainfall throughout the year is on both sides of the equator between 5°N and 7°S. Tropical and subtropical climate is there to the north and south of this zone.

The dry zones in the world are those zones that lie between 15°to 35° latitude of both hemispheres. A large part of the dry zone is in the North Africa, Central Australia, Western Asia, Western part of North America and Mid-south of the South America.

Latitude controls the climate by determining the slope and incidence of the sunrays. They slant extensively towards far north or far south. Slanting rays spread over and heat larger regions, but has low intensity, as on the poles. But the vertical rays cover and heat a smaller area intensively as on the equator. Here, higher the altitude, less intense is the heat. Indonesia has hotter climate than Nepal because it is near to the equator in comparison to Nepal.

The factors affecting climate are latitude, altitude, land and water distribution, distance from the sea, distance from the sun, prevailing winds and ocean currents, surface covering the land, volcanism, solar constant sunspots, wind direction and nature of mountain chains, mountain barriers.

1°C, temperature decreases in every 160-165 meters of altitude. So, it is taken as one of the influencing factors for determining climate.

We feel cool at higher altitude because of the decrease in temperature at every 165 meters.

The cause of the difference between the climate of Terai and Himalayan region is the altitude which brings variation in the temperature.

Deforestation causes adverse effects on environment. They can be presented in the following points:

  1. The habitat of animal decreased and hence they will perish.
  2. The sources of food for human beings decreases and many people die of starvation.
  3. There will be lack of fuel, wood, timber and fodder for the domestic animals.
  4. Ecosystem gets disturbed due to imbalance in the number of living beings.
  5. Environment imbalance occurs owing to the disturbance in living and non-living beings.
  6. Flood, landslide, soil erosion and various kinds of pollution increases due to deforestation.
The nature of vegetation differs in terms of climate variation. Nepal is one suitable example to prove this fact. Nepal is a small country but there is a clear distinction of climatic variation because of the change of altitude. In the plain Terai, it's very hot having tropical type of vegetation with strong and big trees. The deposition of fertile soil makes it capable of having good cultivation.
Similarly, the increment in altitude towards the north brings variation in vegetation. The sloppy, gentle hills have moderate climate with moderate number of vegetation and suitable cash crops like tea, cardamom, potato, Coffee, ginger, etc. The availability of water also makes it normally moderate in vegetation with deciduous trees.
On the other hand, the snow clad and extremely cold climate in the far narth has poor vegetation. Except rare crops in the Himalayan region, we find coniferous trees with soft nature.

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