Sociological and Anthropological Research

Subject: Sociology

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Research is a systematic and scientific process to study old facts and verify new facts. It is a process to search for identification of problem, formulation of hypothesis, data collection, data analysis and presentation to get conclusion. Research helps to analyze various weakness to make functional work to more fact full give originality to the research. It is completed with the process of report writing.
Sociological and Anthropological Research

Research is the word made up of two words “re” and “search” which means to search again and again for any problem or case. Social research is an intensive study in any subject where it tries to know about social phenomena. It tries to create new knowledge so research should always concentrate on the logical, meaningful and scientific investigation and it should be beneficial to society. It is an art of scientific investigation done by a different researcher.

Language of social research

  • Concept

A concept is any abstract characteristic that can be potentially measured. For example: one might measure a social class in terms of income, educational level, occupation, social status, social honor etc.

  • Variables

A technical term used to refer to the representation of any distinct social characteristics or social factor such as age, sex, income, education, occupation in empirical research. A variable is constructed by defining a concept and developing a satisfactory indicator for that concept.

  • Hypothesis

Basically, hypothesis is like prediction of what will happen in a study or experiment. It is under known facts of the problem to explain the relationship between these variables. It is the statement subject to verification. Basically, it shows the relationship between two or more variables that can be tested empirically.


  • Qualitative data: The information is presented in literature which is given by the response and they can be logically interpreted and analyzed.
  • Quantitative data: The statistical presentation of the information given by the respondent which are numerical and can be analyzed using statistical tools and techniques.
  • Primary data: The data which have not been previously collected or assembled for any other known project.
  • Secondary data: Secondary data is already gathered by others in which researcher is not an eye witness.


It is the method in which entire population is studied in every 10 years.


It is a process of observation without getting its date. It is a technique for carrying out the investigation process with the direct observation or by the collection of data.


Universe is a collection of total data through which population is selected for the sample.


Sample are the units that are selected for the process of sampling.

Steps of the social research

  • Definition of the problem and specification on the subject
  • Formulation of hypothesis
  • Selection of sample
  • Development and piloting of the research instrument
  • Administering the questionnaire by an interview to the respondents selected in the sample
  • Coding the data and editing of data
  • Data processing of the quantifiable results of the survey using an electronic computer
  • Analysis of the results, using appropriate statistical techniques
  • Writing up the results in the thesis, monograph or report

Research Proposal

A proposal is an essential marketing document that helps to cultivate and initial professional relationship between an organization and a donor over a project to be implemented. The proposal outlines the plan of the implementing the project, giving extensive information about the intention, way to manage it and the results to be delivered from it. A proposal is a very important document. The proposal has a framework that establishes ideas for a clear understanding of the project for the donor. Research proposal is a document that is typically written by a scientist or academic which describes the ideas for an investigation on a certain topic.

Methods of data collection

  • Questionnaire

Questionnaire is a very effective instrument that facilitates in collecting the data from large, diverse and widely scattered groups of the population. It is used to gather both qualitative and quantitative data according to the nature of the study. It is an instrument to collect and aggregate primary data from the basic sources. The questionnaire is an information bank that is used to collect data from primary sources. It consists of number of questions arranged in precise logical order with a definite purpose.

  • Interview

An interview is an interaction between two or more parties that is interviewee and interviewer. It is an easy way to collect information by asking the question directly to the respondent by which the feeling and knowledge of the respondent can be collected relevant to the subject matter during the interview. It has been used in all kinds of practical situation.

  • Observation

Observation is one of the prime process of social research in which the researcher visit the field and observe the events or by being the member of the groups or without. The researcher will observe the events and collects the information on that basis. During observation, the researcher is independent to observe the event and ask question for the collection of information.

  • Social survey

It stands for studying and analyzing social problems. The aim of the survey is to give importance on the practical, changeable and creative part of the society. The collection of social data by means of the purpose designed inquiry in which a sample of the population is interviewed on particular subject using questions standardized in a questionnaire. The resulting data is then usually analyzed quantitatively after coding and editing, to provide descriptive information about the variables studied. The social survey is most commonly used research technique in sociology and is also widely used in governmental, commercial and independent non-profit social research.

Data analysis and report writing

Data analysis is the process of converting the raw data into meaningful information by using various statistical and mathematical tools . In the beginning, data is raw in nature but later it will be arranged in a certain format or a meaningful order. This raw data takes the form of information. The most critical and essential supporting pillars of the research are the analysis and the interpretation of the data. Analysis of data can be best explained as computing some of the majors supported by the search for relationship patterns, existing among the group of the data.

The process of classifying interpreting the collected data so that it can be used in the future for meaningful purpose is known as report writing. It requires a simple and clear language with expertise to write a report. Written reports are documents which presents focused important content to a specific audience. Reports are often used to display the results of an experiment, investigation or inquiry.


Khatri, Prem Kumar, Elementary Sociology and Anthropology XI, Bhundipuran Prakashan, Kathmandu

Sharma, Kamal Raj, Introduction to Sociology and Anthropology inNepal-XI, Sunrise Prakashan Pvt. Ltd., Kathmandu

Sitaula, Mohan Kumar, Introduction to Sociology and Anthropology-XI, Ekta Books and Distributors, Kathmandu

Things to remember
  1. Social research should always concentrate on a logical, meaningful and scientific investigation.
  2. Observation is the process of collecting information by  monitoring the activities .
  3. Report writing should be purposeful, problem concerned and interpretive.
  • It includes every relationship which established among the people.
  • There can be more than one community in a society. Community smaller than society.
  • It is a network of social relationships which cannot see or touched.
  • common interests and common objectives are not necessary for society.

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