Endocrine Gland 2

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introduction of the Adrenal gland , glucocorticoids , mineralocaorticoids, sex hormone , nor epinephrine hormones , pineal glands and pancreas all their types with functions Endocrine is the study of endocrine system that co ordinate and integrates the function of the body by the help of chemical messengers known as hormones .hormones are secreted by ductless glands and released directly into the blood . Pancreas is mixed gland with both exocrine or endocrine
Endocrine Gland 2

Adrenal gland

it also called suprarenal gland located on the top of each kidney .adrenal gland has two parts outer cortex and inner medulla .the cortex is mesodermal while medulla is ectodermal in an organism.
Adrenal cortex
it is outer and has 3 layers Zona glomerulosa,zona fasciculate and zona reticularis
hormones of the adrenal cortex .
they are steroid in natre and are collectively called corticoids. they are glucocorticoid mineralocorticoid and sex steroid hormones.


fig adrenal gland


these are cortisol; and corticosterone secreted by zone fasciculate and zona reticularis .it regulates carbohydrate metabolism by increasing glycogenesis,gluconeogenesis . Hypersecretion in female causes adrenal virilism it is characterized by the appearance of beards , moustaches and male voice .its helps in absorption of fat and deamination of protein . it helps in absorption of fat and deamination of protein.its helps in absorption of fat and deamination of proteins it mainly in acts on cells of the liver called target cells .
hyposecretion of glucocorticoid hormones causes Addison's disease this is character by low blood sugar and no , nausea , vomiting , diarrhoeas and Bronge pigmentation of the skin .
hypersecretion causes Cushing syndrome and cons syndrome.


Fig glucocorticoids


1 they are aldosterone.deoxycorticosterone secreted by zona glomerulosa . they increase sodium in blood and decrease potassium . it is salt-retaining hormone It is concerned with electrolytes and water balance it mainly acts on the cell of kidney called target cell.


Fig mineralocorticoids

Sex hormones

1 the dehydro Epiandrosterone hormone ,
2 Oestrogens in female and androgen hormone in male they control the growth of sex organs and secondary sexual characters excess secretion of estrogens in male causes Gynecomastia .
Adrenal medulla
its secretes two hormones nor epinephrine and epinephrine , the hormones mainly acts on muscles , blood vessels, and hearts.

Nor epinephrine hormones

1 it is also called nor adrenalin it regulates the blood pressure and controls the constrict the activity of blood vessel also increase the active of heart it dilates the pupil of the eye .
Epinephrine homone
it is also called adrenalin helping secreted at the time of emergency so-called emergency .hormone it is not essential for daily life . it whips up the metabolism in emergency helping increase consumption of O2 production of heart BMR , heart neat BP etc.

Pineal gland

it is found near diencephalone of the brain and is also known as the 3rd eye it is ectodermal in origin and to be seat beat of soul hormone melatonin is secreted pineal body. it regulates the development of gonads and slows menstrual cycle in female causes lightening of skin and is anta oinist it causes lightening of skin and is the antagonist of MSH . it is also known as anti ageing hormones . the calcium and magnesium salts are deposited in this gland so-called brain sad
thymus gland .
it is bilobed and flattened gland located just in front of heart. it is active in young one but it becomes inactive after puberty it can be divided into cortex and medulla cortex consists of thymocytes and medulla has hassle bodies responsible for maturation of t cell so-called training school of T lymphocytes .The thymus plays a dual role 1st as the seedbed of uncommitted lymphocytes and secondly as a stimulator for lymphocytes to acquire specific immunity.


fig Pineal gland


it is mixed gland islets of Langerhans is endocrine past as well they which has 3 types of cells hormone of pancreas are as followed :-
1 Insulin
2 glucagon
3 somatostatin


fig pancreas


Agrawal, sarita. principle of biology. 2nd edition . kathmandu: Asmita book Publication, 2068 ,2069

Mehta, Krishna Ram. Principle of biology. 2nd edition. kathmandu: Asmita, 2068,2069.

Jorden, S.L. principle of biology. 2nd edition . Kathmandu: Asmita book Publication, 2068.2069.

Things to remember
  1. hormones are biologically highly active substance secreted by ductless endocrine glands 
  2. Pituitary gland it is the smallest endocrine gland it is also known as the master gland because it regulates the secretion of other endocrine glands by secretion activity and inbiting factors

  3. thyroid stimulating hormones  It is gkycoprotein in nature and induces thyroid gland.
  4. It balance iodine inside our body , factors controlling secretion of TSH in body is T4
  5. vit D acts as synergetic of parathormone 
  • It includes every relationship which established among the people.
  • There can be more than one community in a society. Community smaller than society.
  • It is a network of social relationships which cannot see or touched.
  • common interests and common objectives are not necessary for society.

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