Australia: Physical and Social Life Style

Subject: Social Studies

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Australia has a total area of 7,617,950 square kilometres. The Gulf of Carpenteria in the north and the Great Australian Bight in the south are the places where the seas enter to the midland.
Australia: Physical and Social Life Style

Location, Size, and Boundary

Australia Physical Map
Australia Physical Map

Australia entirely lies in the Southern hemisphere. It is extended from 10°S to 40°S latitudes and 114°E to 154°E longitudes.
It is surrounded by seas on all sides. The Indian Ocean lies to the north-west, the Pacific Ocean lies to the east and the Southern Ocean lies in the southern part of the Australia. It is the only continent which is crossed across by the Tropic of Capricorn. The Tropic of Capricorn divides the continent into two halves approximately.

Unique characteristics of Australia

  1. Least populated continent.
  2. Driest continent.
  3. Smallest continent.
  4. Continent with the largest island.
  5. Continent with unique species of animals and flowers.

Its area is 7,617,950 square kilometres. It is the sixth largest continent in the world. It's north-south and east-west distances are 3196 km and 3840 km respectively. British Captain James Cook Sailed to the eastern coast of Australia in 1770 A.D. The Dutch were the first to reach Australia. Dutch explorer Willem Jansz is regarded as the first to discover Australia in 1606 A.D.

Australia is bordered by the New Guinea to the north, Timor to the north-west and Tasmania to the south. New-Zealand and other eastern and south-eastern islands are also parts of Australia.

Natural Setting

Australia has a regular coastline. The Gulf of Carpenteria in the north and the Great Australian Bight in the south are the places where the seas enter to the midland. The north-western coast is highly broken. Tasmania is a separated island in the south-east. The presence of Tropic of Capricorn, in the mid part highly affects the natural condition of Australia.

Physical Features

Australia is divided into three physical regions. They are as mentioned below.

  1. Eastern Mountains/Highlands
    The Eastern Mountain stretch from north to south along the eastern coast. It covers nearly 3000 km distance. These are also called as the Great Dividing Range because it separates the rivers flowing to east from those flowing west. This range is older than the Himalayas of Asia and the Alps of Europe. It has the gentler slopes and lower altitude in the north. Mt. Kosciusko (2230 m) is the highest peak of Australia which lies in New South Wales province.
  2. Central Plains
    The central plains extend from the Gulf of Carpentaria in the north to the southern ocean. It is between the Eastern Mountains and the Western Plateaus. It is popularly known as the Downs. The Central lowlands can be further divided into three main lands. They are Carpeteria lowlands in the north, lake Eyre Basin in the centre and Murray-Darling Basin in the south. The Central lake Eyre Basin is a low-lying basin. It is made of inland drainage. Similarly, the only one permanent river system of the continent is the Murray-Darling system which lies in the southern Australia.
  3. Western Plateau
    Western plateau covers nearly two third of the total area of Australia. It is regarded as one of the oldest landforms in the world. It mainly consists of the hard rocks. It is popularly known as The Great Australian Desert.

Climatic Conditions

The climate of Australia is entirely contrary to that of Nepal. When it is autumn in Nepal, it is spring in Australia. Different parts of Australia have varieties of climatic conditions. The northern coastal region is influenced by the monsoon climate. Summer is humid and rainy and winter is dry in this region. The Mediterranean climate shapes the climatic condition of western and south-eastern regions. There are hot and dry summers and warm and wet winters in this region.

Vegetations and Animals


Australia is rich with unique species of animals and plants. Most of the plants and animals found in Australia are not found in other parts of the world. Eucalyptus is a tree which can easily adopt in dry and hot climate. It has a thick oily bark. It is used for medicinal purposes. Other rare plants are mals, scrub, saltbush, and acacia.

A special animal called kangaroo is found only in Australia. It's forelimbs are very short while the hindlimbs are much longer. A kangaroo manipulates its hind limbs and tail for locomotion. A female kangaroo has a special bag in her stomach where she can keep young ones. Another four-footed animal is the platypus. It looks like a mongoose, but it lays eggs. It is like a half-animal and half-bird. Another peculiar animal is the dreadful dog called dingo.

Socio-economic Life

The mainland of the continent Australia is the commonwealth of Australia. Canberra is the capital city. Australia is rich in natural resources.

The native Australians are called aborigines. They are dwelling in and around the Savanna, a huge grassland area. They are generally nomadic people with no permanent settlements. They rear animals, hunt wildlife and collect food grains. They do less cultivation.

There are national parks in the Northern Territory. These are the centres of tourism activities whereas the people in Down are engaged in wheat farming and sheep rearing. Dairy farming is the special feature of Queensland.

Australia is rich in minerals as well. It is a leading producer of gold, silver, zinc and lead. Gold is produced mainly in Kalgoorlie. Lead and silver are mined in Mt. Isa. Australia alone produces the one-third portion of the total production of uranium in the world.

Industries of heavy engineering and wool factories are advanced in Australia. Hydroelectricity is generated through the Murray-Darling river system.

Australia is a continent of immigrants. The largest numbers of immigrants are from Great Britain and Ireland. Australians possess a higher living standard. Lifestyle in towns is same as Europe.

Nepal has a friendly relationship with Australia. Australia is supporting Nepal in its development process. Many Nepalese youths go to study and settle in Australia every year.

Things to remember
  • Physical features of Australia.
  • Total area and the hemisphere where it is located.
  • Tasmania is a separated island in the south-east. 
  • It includes every relationship which established among the people.
  • There can be more than one community in a society. Community smaller than society.
  • It is a network of social relationships which cannot see or touched.
  • common interests and common objectives are not necessary for society.
Videos for Australia: Physical and Social Life Style
Australia History and Geography for kids education-kids knowledge videos
Australia's Geographic Challenge
Australian States And Territories
Physical features of Australia
The Geography of Australia
Questions and Answers

Australia lies in the southern hemisphere.

Dutch explorer Willem Jansz is regarded as the first to discover Australia in 1606 A.D.

The area of Australia is 76,17,950 sq. km.

Dutch Explorer William Jansz is regarded as the first to discover Australia.

The unique characteristicsof Australia are as follows:

  • Least populated continent
  • Smallest continent
  • Continent with the largest islands
  • Continent with unique species of animals and flowers

The physical features of Australia are as follows:

  • Eastern Mountains/Highlands
  • The Central Plains
  • Western Plateau

Mals, scrub, saltbush and acacia are the types of plants that are only found in Australia.

Kangaroo is the native of Australia.


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