## Composition of Population: Sex, Caste and Religion

Subject: Enviroment Population and Health

#### Overview

The description of the population according to the different characteristics such as caste, religion, sex, language, occupation, etc is called composition of the population. It is the structure of the population. This note provides information about the composition of the population by sex, caste/ethnicity, and religion.

#### Composition of Population

The description of the population according to the different characteristics such as caste, religion, sex, language, occupation, etc is called composition of the population. It is the structure of the population. Caste, religion, etc reflects the social characteristics, age and sex reflect the demographic characteristics and occupation denote the economic characteristics. It is very important for the study of population. It provides detail information about the individual people. It helps to know about the total number pf people of a particular area belonging to different caste, religion, language, occupation, and sex. It helps the government to plan and carry out developmental activities. On the basis of population composition, the population can be classified into the following groups,

Population Composition by Sex

The arrangement of the population on the basis of sex is called population composition by sex. It is the structure of population on the basis of sex. It can also be defined as the distribution of population on the basis of sex that is male and female. The table given below shows the population composition by sex of Nepal in different census,

 Census(AD) Male Female Population Percent Population Percent 2001 1,15,63,921 49.9 1,15,87,502 50.1 2011 1,28,49,041 48.5 1,36,45,463 51.5

The above table shows the population composition by sex in 2001 and 2011 AD. Here, in both census, the population of the female is more than the population of male. The total percentage of female form the total population in 2001 AD is 50.1 and male is 49.9. Similarly, the population percentage of male and female in 2011 AD is 51.5 and 48.5 respectively. While studying the population composition by sex, we should not forget the contribution of sex ratio. The sex ratio can be calculated by the given formula,

Sex Ratio = $\frac{M}{F}$ $\times$ 100

Where,
M: Total number of male population
F: Total number of female population

The sex ratio of various censuses has been shown in the following table:

 Census Year (AD) 1981 1991 2001 2011 SexRatio 105 99.5 99.8 94.16

Sex ratio is the total number of male population per hundred female population. From the above table, we can observe that the sex ratio is high in 1981 AD. The sex ratio is observed low in 1991, 2001 and 2011 AD.

Population Composition by Castes/Ethnicity

There are various castes in Nepal. Nepali is a country of multicultural and multi- ethnicity. Our community and the country is made of various castes and ethnic groups. According to our great King Prithivi Narayan Shah, 'Nepal is a garden of 4 castes and 36 sub- castes'. Some of the examples of the caste of Nepal are Brahmin, Chhetri, Thakuri, Badi, Gaine. Hilly region and mountain region supports the caste like Magar, Gurung, Rai, Limbu whereas Terai region supports the caste like tharu, Dhimal, Gangai, Santhal etc. Though Nepal is a small country, a large variation in caste and ethnic groups can be seen. There was not reliable data and document about the various castes of Nepal since from 1911 to 1981. But the census of 2001 and 2011 AD provide exact data about the caste and ethnic groups of Nepal. The given table shows the population composition by the major caste/ethnic groups,

 Caste/Ethnic Group 2001 2011 Population Per cent Population Per cent Chhetri 3,593,496 15.80 4,398,053 16.6 Brahmin hill 2,896,477 12.74 3,226,903 12.18 Magar 1,622,421 7.14 1,887,733 7.12 Tharu 1,533,879 6.75 1,737,470 6.56 Tamang 1,282,304 5.64 1,539,830 5.81 Newar 1,245,232 5.48 1,321,933 4.99 Muslim 971,056 4.27 1,164,225 4.39 Kami 895,954 3.94 1,258,554 4.75 Yadav 895,423 3.94 1,054,458 3.98 Rai 635,151 2.79 620,004 2.34 Gurung 543,571 2.39 522,641 1.97 Damain/Dholi 390,305 1.72 472,862 1.78 Limbu 359,379 1.58 387,300 1.46 Thakuri 334,120 1.47 425,623 1.61 Sarki 318,989 1.40 374,816 1.41 Teli 304,536 1.34 369,688 1.4 Chamar/Harijan/Ram 269,661 1.19 355,893 1.34 Koiri/Kushwaha 251,274 1.11 321,109 1.21

From the given table, we can observe that, Chhetri is the largest caste in Nepal occupying 15.80 percent in 2001 AD and 16.6 percent in 2011 AD. The total percent of Sarki in 2001 AD is 1.40 and 1.41 in 2011 AD. The caste with least population is Koiri/Kushwaha occupying 1.11 percent in 2001 and 1.21 in 2011 AD.

Population Composition by Religion

People of Nepal belongs to the different religion. Nepal is a non-secular state. Nepal is a multi- lingual and multi- religious country. There are various religions followed by people in Nepal like Hindu, Buddist, Islam, Bon etc. The majority of people of Nepal follow Hindu religion and then second Buddhist religion. Nepal is a birthplace of Gautam Buddha. The total percentage of people following Hindu is 80.62 in 2001 and 81.34 in 2011 AD. People also follow other religions like Jain, Prakriti, Bon, Sikh etc. The given table shows the population composition by religion in 2001 and 2011 AD.

 Religion Population (%) 2001 AD 2011 AD Hindu 80.62 81.34 Buddhist 10.74 9.04 Islam 4.20 4.39 Kirant 3.60 3.05 Christianity 0.45 1.41 Jain 0.02 0.01 Prakriti -- 0.46 Bon -- 0.04 Sikh 0.02 0.01 Bahai 0.01 0.01 Others 0.34 0.23

##### Things to remember
• The distribution of the population according to caste, religion, sex, language, occupation, etc is called population composition.
• In 2011 AD,  the total population of male is 1,28,49,041 and female is 1,36,45,463.
• Population classified according to sex is called population composition by sex.
• Sex ratio is the total number of males per hundred female population.
• The majority of people of Nepal follow Hindu religion in Nepal.
• Nepal is the birthplace of Gautam Buddha.
• Nepal is the country of multi- culture and multi- ethnicities.
• It includes every relationship which established among the people.
• There can be more than one community in a society. Community smaller than society.
• It is a network of social relationships which cannot see or touched.
• common interests and common objectives are not necessary for society.
##### Top 10 Ethnic groups in Nepal [ ??????? ?? 10 ????? ???????? ]
The distribution of population according to certain characteristics or criteria such as age, sex, and socio- economic criteria such as religion, language and occupation is called composition of population.
Total number of males per hundred female population is called sex ratio.
The sex ratio of total population of Nepal in 2001 AD census was 99.8.
The sex ratio of total population of Nepal in 2011 AD census was 94.16.
Population classified according to sex is called population composition by sex.
The total percentage of Chhetri in total population of Nepal in 2001 AD census was 15.8.
The total percentage of Newar in total population of Nepal in 2011 AD census was 5.03.
The total percentage of people in Nepal who follow Hindu religion according to 2011 AD census is 81.34.
The total percentage of people in Nepal who follow Buddhist religion according to 2011 AD census is 9.04.
The total percent of female population in Nepal according to 2011 AD census is 51.5

The percentage of the male and female population in different age groups is known as age and sex composition of population .Such percentage can be shown by pyramid of population . Pyramid of population is a detailed description of age depicting the age-sexcomposition of a population . The basic pyramid form consists of bars. They represent are groups in ascending order from the lowest to the highest pyramid horizontally one another .

The description of the population according to the different characteristics such as caste, religion, sex, language, occupation, etc is called composition of the population. It is the structure of the population. Caste, religion, etc reflects the social characteristics, age and sex reflect the demographic characteristics and occupation denote the economic characteristics. It is very important for the study of population. It provides detail information about the individual people. It helps to know about the total number pf people of a particular area belonging to different caste, religion, language, occupation, and sex. It helps the government to plan and carry out developmental activities.

People of Nepal belongs to the different religion. Nepal is a secular state. Nepal is a multi- lingual and multi- religious country. There are various religion followed by people in Nepal like Hindu, Buddist, Islam, Bon etc. The majority of people of Nepal follow Hindu religion and then second Buddhist religion. Nepal is a birthplace of Gautam Buddha. The total percentage of people following Hindu is 80.62 in 2001 and 81.34 in 2011 AD. People also follow other religions like Jain, Prakriti, Bon, Sikh etc