## Some Term Related With Sound

Subject: Science

#### Overview

A sound is a form of energy which gives a sensation of hearing. This note provides information about and its properties.
##### Some Term Related With Sound

Audibility

The range of frequencies which a listener can distinguish is known as range of audibility. The audible range of sound for the human being is 20HZ to 20,000HZ. TheSound of frequency below 20 Hz is called infrasonic sound or subsonic sound and sound with frequencies above 20,000 Hz are known as ultrasonic or ultrasound.

Properties of ultrasonic or ultrasound

• They produce heating effect in any substance through which they propagate.
• They produce coagulation ( the process by which liquid changes to a gel) in liquid.
• They can travel long distance without loss of energy.

Applications of ultrasonic or ultrasound

• They are used in diagnosis and cure some diseases.
• They are used in bloodless surgery.
• They can be used to detect cracks and flows in metal moldings.
• They are used in dry cleaning of clothes as they can remove grease and dirt.

#### Characteristics of notes

Single sound of a certain pitch and duration made by a musical instrument or voice is called note. Notes may be similar or different from each other in three aspects. They are pitch, loudness (or intensity) and quality (or timbre).

Pitch

Pitch is defined as the sharpness of sound. It depends only on the frequency of the sound vibrations.

Pitch depends on the following factor:

• Frequency of the sounding body: greater the frequency higher the pitch.
• Relative motion between the source and the listener: if the relative motion between source and listener is approaching, the pitch seems to be increasing and it they are receding, the pitch seems to be decreasing.

##### Intensity and loudness

Intensity of sound is the quantity of sound energy per unit time flowing across unit area hold normally to the direction of propagation of sound waves.

∴ Intensity of sound =

To find the intensity at a distance ‘r’ from small source of sound ‘O’, we consider a sphere of radius r. If E is the sound energy passes through the surface area in the given time‘t’. Then,

I =

∝ 1 ………………..(i)

If ‘a’ is the amplitude of the sound wave emitting from the source ‘O’. Then,

I ∝ a2 ……………….(ii)

From (i) and (ii), we get

a2∝ 1 / …………… (iii)

∴ a ∝ 1/r

##### Things to remember
• The range of frequencies which a listener can distinguish is known as range of audibility.
• Single sound of a certain pitch and duration made by a musical instrument or voice is called note.
• The intensity of sound is the quantity of sound energy per unit time flowing across unit area hold normally to the direction of propagation of sound waves.
• It includes every relationship which established among the people.
• There can be more than one community in a society. Community smaller than society.
• It is a network of social relationships which cannot see or touched.
• common interests and common objectives are not necessary for society.
##### Questions and Answers

The differences between intensity of sound and pitch of sound are as follows,

 Intensity of sound Pitch of sound It is related to the loudness of sound. It is related to the sharpness of sound. It depends on amplitude of sound wave. It is depends on frequency of wave. It is measurablequantity and its unit is decible. It is not measurable quantity. It has no unit.

Any four applications of ultrasound are as follows,

• They are used in diagnosis and cure some diseases.
• They are used in bloodless surgery.
• They can be used to detect cracks and flows in metal moldings.
• They are used in dry cleaning of clothes as they can remove grease and dirt.

Pitch of sound dependson the following factors,

• Frequency of sounding body
• Relative motion between the source and the listener
• Thickness of wire
• Length of wire

The factors on which the intensity or loudness of sound depends on are as follows,

• Amplitude of vibration
• Distance from the source
• Size of sounding body
• Density of the medium
• Presence of other bodies
• Wind

Single sound of a certain pitch and duration made by a musical instrument or a voice is called a note.
Pitch is defined as the sharpness of a sound.
The intensity of sound is a measurable quantity, responsible for the loudness of sound.
Any two factors on which the pitch of sound depends are thickness of wire and length of wire.
The pitch of sound becomes more when the frequency of sound is more.
The sound wave having frequency from 20 Hz to 20,000 Hz (20 KHz) is called audible sound.
Any two examples of animals that produce ultrasonic sounds are bats and dolphin.
The sound wave having frequency less than 20 Hz is called infrasonic sound.
Infrasonic sound is produced by waves of earthquakes.
The sound wave having frequency greater than 20,000 Hz (i.e. 20 KHz) is called ultrasonic sound.