Subject: Social Studies

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Development is a change which brings improvement in the lives of every human being. This note contains a description of a development and positive changes of development.



The people, families, communities, and country are always changing. Development is a change which brings improvement in the lives of every human being. The change that benefits only men or city dwellers does not represent development. Thus, a true development benefits all the people and has the capacity to run smoothly for a long time.

The level of development is not equal everywhere. Some countries such as those in Western Europe have been developing rapidly for 200 years. These countries are now considered as developed countries. Although there are poor people, most people enjoy the high standard of living. Other countries, mainly Africa, Asia and South America have only been developing for about 50 years and for historical or geographical reasons these developing nations are much poorer. In these countries average living standard of people is low.

Achieving Development

Development is often connected with economic growth. In this sense, to obtain higher economic status is development. But economic growth alone does not represent true development. In other words, development is concerned not merely with the fulfillment of physical needs of people but also with socio-cultural amelioration. So, true development refers to the changes that improve the overall human condition.

Development takes place with the proper utilization of available means and resources. Factors such as health, education, transport and communication are essentials for providing services for people and to run developmental activities. So these are called infrastructures of development. A country with good systems of these factors can run development easily. Development is a change which brings improvement in the lives of everyone living in the country. Above all good leadership and its execution cannot be expected from corrupt leaders.

The economy of a country is stronger if it has more export and less import. Money earned from exports, goods sold abroad and is lost by buying imports from other countries. Though Nepal loses a lot in its imports, it has been earning well from foreign employment. In many parts of the world, the fruit of development is not equally enjoyed by all the people. There is a huge gulf between rich and poor in capitalist societies. So, countries should make an effort to achieve development that can benefit the poor societies more.

Measuring Development

The level of development can be measured and compared with the help of several figures known as indicators. Gross domestic product (GDP), a common indicator, is the total value of goods produced and services provided within a country's border irrespective of nationalities of the producers or providers. GDP, thus, includes the contribution by the non-nationals within the country but executes that by the nationals abroad. Nowadays gross national income (GNI) is used as the main indicator of economic development. GNI includes both GDP and earning from abroad. If we divide it by total population, we have the per capita income, which is the average amount earned by the people in one year. Per capita income is a common indicator of development. It shows the average income status of citizens in a year time.

Mathematically, per capita income= GNI/total population

Total population

The distribution of jobs is another indicator. In poor countries, people work hard mainly in non-industrial fields, but without skills, power or machinery, they cannot earn very much. Human Development Index (HDI) is a collective indicator calculated on the basis of per capita income, literacy and life expectancy. So, it can reflect the overall status of development achieved by a country in the areas of economic growth, education, and health. But average values always hide differences. For example, a country with many poor people may have high per capita income because of the high incomes of some very rich people. Per-capita income is same for rich and poor and for earnings and non-earning.

Means and resources

Raw materials Farming, forest products and natural resources
Labour-power Skilled and unskilled manpower
Capital Different kinds of tax, investment, trade and industry.
Power-sources Hydroelectric, coal, gas, oil, solar power and wood
Transport Roads, bridges, airways and other regular services
Communication Television, radio, satellite, fax, postal services, email, telephone, etc.
Education School, technical education, universities, campuses, skill-training etc.
Health, sanitation and family planning Healthy and planned family, controlled population, hospital, environment conservation and waste disposal etc.
Power Hydroelectricity, gas and oil supply, nuclear energy, thermal power, solar power and fuel etc.
Market Local, national and international market
Commerce Banking system, insurance, shops and hotels etc.
Irrigation Canals, tube wells, pumps etc.
Housing, leisure facilities Planned development, government provision.
We have abundant sources of minerals,perennial rivers,thrilling cultures,peculiar flora and fauna etc but they are not utilized properly.The reasons are:-
  • Lack of capital
  • Political instability
  • High influence of corruption
  • Lack of feeling of nationality
  • Lack of knowledge of technology
Things to remember
  • Development is a change which brings improvement in the lives of every human being living.
  • Gross domestic product (GDP), a common indicator, is the total value of goods produced and services provided within a country’s border irrespective of nationalities of the producers or providers.
  • Gross national income(GNI) includes both GDP and earning from abroad.
  • It includes every relationship which established among the people.
  • There can be more than one community in a society. Community smaller than society.
  • It is a network of social relationships which cannot see or touched.
  • common interests and common objectives are not necessary for society.
Videos for Development
Development ad its infrastructure
Economic Development & Growth
Poverty Alleviation Fund in Darchula district
What is Development?
What is Development?
Questions and Answers

Development is a positive change which brings improvement in the lives of everyone in the country and which not only benefits men or city-dwellers but all the people.

The list of things needed for sustainable development is listed below:
  • Proper utilization of resources
  • Human resources
  • Preservation and conservation of resources
  • Tackling inequality
  • Fulfillment of not only physical needs but also socio- amelioration
  • Encouraging more export and less import

Per capita income, also known as income per person, is the mean income of people in a country or a city. It is calculated by measuring all sources of income in the aggregate and dividing it by total population.

Per capital income is expressed in US dollar as it is widely known, easily calculated from readily-available GDP and population estimates, and is accepted all over the world.

GNI is different from GDP in following ways:
GNI is used as a main indicator of economic development. GDP is used as a common indicator of economic development.
The full form of GNI is Gross National Income. The full form of GDP is Gross Domestic Product.
GNI includes both GDP and earning from abroad. GDP includes the contribution by the non-national within the country but exclude that by the nations abroad.

The main features of capitalist economy are given below:

  • It is an economic system in which an individual in his capacity as a consumer, producer and resource owner is engaged in economic activity with a great degree of economic freedom.
  • The production factors are privately owned and managed by the individuals.
  • Competition is the most important feature of capitalist economy. This means the existence of large number of buyers and sellers in the market who are motivated by their self-interest but cannot influence market decisions by their individual actions.

All the values of the production and services gained from internal sources of a country within a year is called gross domestic income.

The professions adapted by the people of least developed countries are agriculture (farming/animal husbandry), cottage industry, hunting and gathering, traditional trade etc.

The professions adapted by the people of least developed countries are services, industries, trade, modern farming, fishing, science and technology.

Some exports of our country are:

  • Garment
  • Carpets
  • Handicrafts
  • Herbs
  • Tea
  • Jute

Some imports of our country are:

  • Machinery goods
  • Petroleum products
  • Vehicles and vehicle parts
  • Clothes
  • Medicines
  • Food items

USA and France are the two developed countries, Singapore and Cyprus are the developing countries and Nepal and Uganda are the least developed counties.

A country having highly organized economic and political system which is able to produce almost all the necessary goods needed and brings positive changes to the life of its people is called a developed country.


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