Infrastructure of Development, Its Means and Resources

Subject: Social Studies

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Infrastructure is the services needed for a country to run smoothly and for economic and social development to take place in a country. This note contains a description on Infrastructures of development, its means and resources.
Infrastructure of Development, Its Means and Resources

For the development, available means and resources should be utilized properly. Raw materials themselves cannot do anything by themselves, skilled manpower and capital are required to make the best use of the raw materials. Political stability is needed for the execution of the construction works and implementation of developmental infrastructures.

Nepal is a country rich in physical diversity. If you look at the land topography you will find high Himalayan ranges in the north and smooth plains in the south with hills and valleys. There is various climate over these distinct landforms. The land is suitable for the cultivation of many types of crops. Owing to the diversity of landform and climate, natural vegetation differs from place to place. The country is very rich in wildlife too, there are perennial rivers fed by the Himalayan snow. We get drinking water from these sources. This diverse topography in our country is a real boon of nature. We have been provided with enough resources for industries and tourism too.Broadly infrastructure refers to essential factors needed for development like facilities,transport,communication etc

The major reasons to abstract the development of infrastructures in Nepal are :-

  • Lack of Capital
  • Political instability
  • Point Corruption
  • Lack of tools and technology
  • Cultural and religious barriers
  • Lack of proper tools and materials
  • Complex topography
  • Continuation of natural disasters-flood,landslide,earthquake etc



Human being are the most important resources of the countries. But they must be firstly educated to utilize available means and resources to an optimum level. It is the education that makes people conscious, disciplined and productive. Educated people know the importance of their health and the need for nation development as well. Besides, educated people are more knowledgeable and make a better voting choice to help maintain good governance. Since education provides the skilled manpower needed in all the areas for development, it is often taken as the first and the foremost infrastructure of the development.,A good education includes both academic and technical education.

Aims of education

The education is very important and here are some reasons for being educated:

  1. To learn to solve our own problems.
  2. To be able to use multiple languages.
  3. To be able to change society.
  4. To have higher status on education.
  5. To be civilized.
  6. To know about the country better and contribute to development.
  7. To make people aware of the mistakes they are doing.
  8. To acknowledge people about the importance of education.

Education in Nepal

Education in Nepal was long based on Homeschooling and Gurukul.The first formal school was established in 1853 but was intended to the elites. Education in Nepal is not that developed. English education in Nepal started in 1910 BS with the establishment of Durbar High School in Kathmandu during the Rana rule. There were only 321 schools and colleges in 2007 BS. When compared to the number of school going children, the number of schools were very low. Even those provided were not evenly distributed and properly managed. Facilities of higher education are also far from enough. Technical education is highly limited, provided by very few educational institutions. It is difficult to find jobs according to qualification. Above all, the general public is still not aware of the value of education and poor people cannot afford a good education.



Health is our greatest wealth. You cannot study well if your health is bad nor can you learn well and work hard. You cannot enjoy foods, games and books either. Living with some diseases is really painful. You have to swallow bitter medicines and mostly are confined in bed waiting for others to do all things for you. Even a huge property is spent in caring for our health if we are unhealthy.

Only skilled and healthy citizens can work sufficiently to raise the level of their country. Unhealthy citizens become the burden for their family, society and the nation. The government has to make a huge investment in health sector if public health is poor. It causes lack of sufficient budget for improving other infrastructures such as education and industry because health is to be given the topmost priority. Industries and construction cannot run smoothly due to lack of enough manpower. Natural resources in spite of their high potential are just wasted.

Status of health in Nepal

In Nepal huge budget is allocated and many organizations are working in health sector. However, expected changes have not taken place in the health of general public. Life expectancy is hardly 65 years. Many children are still malnourished. Epidemic and endemic diseases are common. Drinking water is not safe. The environment in urban areas is highly polluted. Doctors are not ready to serve in remote villages. There are not enough hospitals and health center for medical services. Superstitions and ignorance are high. Many people have not realized the importance of medical treatment yet. Population growth rate is high so it is difficult to provide good health services for all. Even the available facilities have not been fairly distributed. Most good hospitals are located in few cities like Kathmandu, Pokhara, Bharatpur. The level of nutrition is poor for the majority of people. The Economic level is also poor. Private hospitals offering quality health services are too expensive for average Nepali population to afford.



The world has become smaller due to the advanced means of transport and communication available in modern time. You can travel a great distance within a short time and you can make contact with anybody in any part of the world immediately. Every day you are using various means of transport directly or indirectly. Probably many of you and your teachers use vehicles to come to school and go home daily. Imagine how you would feel if all the means of transport in your area come to a sudden halt! Or remember how economic and social aspects of a daily life are affected by a transport strike.

A good system of the transport network is needed for a country's economic and social growth. Industries get their raw materials and agricultural as well as finished goods get markets. Tourists can visit places of interest. Trade and business can flourish. Local products find a market. Human relations and cooperation are widened. But the lack of transport makes all these activities difficult and the overall socio-economic development is obstructed.

Transport in Nepal

As other infrastructure developments, development of transport in Nepal also started late. Today we got several system of transport likewise roadways, railways, ropeways, and waterways. Due to our mountainous topography, landlocked position, backward technology and poor economic condition, these systems have not been developed well. We have not got any sea and large navigable rivers, suitable for water transport. Only small boats and rafts are operating in limited courses of few rivers. We have also not been able to expand the only railway i.e. Janakpur-Jaynagar railway even across the Terai plain. The main reason is a lack of capital and technology. Though airways and ropeways are very suitable for a mountainous country like ours, the system is also quite limited. Even the available services cannot be afforded by ordinary Nepalese. Roadways are developed more in Nepal. But it has not connected all parts of the country yet. Remote areas of the north have still to rely on the expensive air transport that is often unreliable, too.The transportation sector of Nepal is not s=developed much due to following reasons :

  • Lack of Capital
  • Political instability
  • Lack of technology
  • Complex topography
  • Lack of will power of the government and people

Plans for roads

Due to our backward economic condition, mountainous and landlocked features, road transport is the most suitable system of transport. The 3-year interim plan had set up the following aims and objectives for the development of road transport in the country.

  • To construct road networks connecting district headquarters, remote areas and areas in mid hills, east-west and north-south in order to provide access to markets for agricultural and industrial goods and services.
  • To make feasibility studies of fast track road connecting Kathmandu with Terai and electric railway and implement possible projects.
  • To prioritise the activities for the completion of roads under construction and for the promotion of available roads.
  • To encourage the private sector in the construction of the infrastructures of alternative technology like railway, cable car and ropeway, and raise the access of rural areas.
  • To carry out feasibility studies of waterways.
  • To give the responsibility of construction and maintenance of local roads to the local bodies.
  • To apply clear policy regarding road security.

Some highway of Nepal with Code No.:

S.N Code Places Connected Name of highway Length
1 H01 Mechi-Mahakali Mahendra Highway 1027.67 km
2 H02 Birgunj-Kathmandu Tribhuwan Highway 159.66 km
3 H03 Kathmandu-Kodari Araniko Highway 112.83 km
4 H04 Naubise-Pokhara Prithivi Highway 173.43 km
5 H05 Narayanghat-Muglin Madan-Ashrit Highway 36.16 km
6 H06 Bhittamod-Sindhuli-Dhulikhel BP Highway 198 km
7 H07 Kechana-Taplegunj Mechi Highway 268 km
8 H08 Rani-Hile Koshi Highway 111 km
9 H09 Kadmaha-Salleri Sagarmatha Highway 265 km
10 H10 Sanauli-Pokhara Siddhartha Highway 181.22 km
11 H11 Ameliya-Musikot Rapti Highway 196 km
12 H12 Nepalgunj-Surkhet Ratna Highway 113 km
13 H13 Surkhet-Jumla Karnali Highway 220 km
14 H14 Mohanapul-Darchula Mahakali Highway 320 km
15 H15 Syaule-Samuwagad,Sanfe Seti Highway 65.96 km



Water is one of the essential conditions of life. Only the earth has a life because of water. But drinking water should be clean and free from contamination. If it is contaminated, it causes many diseases. The health of people greatly depends on the quality of drinking water. Supply of poor drinking water may affect the manpower provision of development because unhealthy people cannot be useful manpower. The demand for drinking water is growing with population growth and urbanization. It is the prime duty of the government to make the proper supply of drinking water to its citizens while it is consumer's duty to cooperate with the distribution system and help make proper utilization

Nepal is the second richest country in the world in water resources. There are more than 6000 rivers and rivulets. Many of these are snow-fed or perennial. There are quite many lakes in our country. In the Terai and Kathmandu valley, underground water can easily be supplied. There is also good monsoon rain at least in monsoon. Though rich in resources, we are thirsty. We have not been able to make proper use of these vast resources. The poor economic condition, difficult landscape, poor technology and insufficient planning are causing wastage of water. Hardly about 60% of the people in Nepal have access to good water. The scarcity is very acute in dense cities. Kathmandu has long been waiting for the completion of Melamchi project which has been prolonging. In addition, these sources of drinking water are getting polluted due to garbage, sewage, and improper use. people are also not very aware of the need for safe drinking water.Nowadays there is a shortage of drinking water due to an explosive growth of population. The government should give topmost priority to the supply of safe drinking water. Large projects should be launched with international assistance for the supply of water in large city areas. Consumers must be alert about water leakage and environmental pollution. Uncontrolled urbanization also needed to be checked.



Electricity is the main power available in the modern world. It is used in all fields ranging from household to the operation of the industries and heavy constructions. So it is called an infrastructure of development. Similarly, means of communication are needed for passing news, views and notices. In the absence of good communication network, developmental works cannot run smoothly. Relations among people are also lacking.

Nepal has a high potential of hydroelectricity because there are quite many rivers flowing swiftly along the mountainous surface. Feasibility studies have shown that as much as 83000 MW of electricity can be generated in Nepal. But mainly for economic and political reasons, so far we have not been able to generate even one percent of total capacity. This is a serious challenge to face for the economic growth of the country. So the government must bring effective policies and make funding from various sources to install more hydropower projects. It is the matter of happiness that we have made a remarkable progress in the field of communication over the last decade.

S.N Hydroelectricity projects Location Production
1 Marsyanghadi Hydroelectricity Project Tanahu 69MW
2 Kulekhani Hydroelectricity Project(I) Makwanpur 60 MW
3 Trishuli Hydroelectricity Project Nuwakot 21 MW
4 Sunkoshi Hydroelectricity Project Sindhupalchowk 10.05 MW
5 Bhotekoshi Hydroelectricity Project Sindhupalchowk 42 MW
6 Kaligandaki-A Hydroelectricity Project Syangja 140 MW
7 Chilime Hydroelectricity Project Rasuwa 20 MW
8 Modhikhola Hydroelectricity Project Parbat 14 MW
9 Upper Tamakoshi Hydroeectricity Project Dolakha 456 MW
10 Jhimruk Hydroelectrcity Project(Under construction) Pyuthan 12 MW
11 Mid Marsyangdi Hydroelectricity Project Lamjung 70 MW



The process of exchanging information between two or more persons to mutual understanding to each other is called communication.It involves the flow of information from a sender to receiver.It is one of the important infrastructure of development.Especially by means of electronic, print, radio, waves and several other means that may be e- mail, internet, telephone, radio, television, letter, fax, magazines, newspapers and such other means used in everyday communication. We need to communicate to share information with other. The development of means of communication has made interpersonal relations close, interact and easy.Communication plays an important role in the development of the country. It reduces the distance and makes the flow of information faster and easily available.It also saves time, budget and labor, Information, ideas and opinions can be shared among many persons at any given time through modern means of communication.

Things to remember
  • Infrastructure is the services needed for a country to run smoothly and for economic and social development to take place in a country.
  • Means and resources of infrastructure are raw materials, labour-power, capital, and power sources.
  • The infrastructure of development are communication, education, health, power, market, commerce, irrigation and leisure facilities.
  • It includes every relationship which established among the people.
  • There can be more than one community in a society. Community smaller than society.
  • It is a network of social relationships which cannot see or touched.
  • common interests and common objectives are not necessary for society.
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Infrastructure of development,its means and Resources.
Infrastructure of development,its means and Resources.
Infrastructure of development,its means and Resources.
Infrastructure of development,its means and Resources.
Infrastructure of development,its means and Resources.
Infrastructure of development,its means and Resources.
Infrastructure of development,its means and Resources.
Infrastructure of development,its means and Resources.
Infrastructure of development,its means and Resources.
Infrastructure of development,its means and Resources.
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The Importance of Communication
Questions and Answers

A resource is a source or supply from which we get benefits. Typically resources are materials, energy, services, staff, knowledge, or other assets that are transformed to produce benefit.

Our skills can be an important resource by utilizing available means and resources properly and making the best of raw materials by using skilled manpower and capital.

Infrastructures of development are the systems such as transport and communication needed to run services and developmental activities.

For the provision of development following steps should be implemented:

  • Making people aware of the needs and importance of infrastructure.
  • Pressurizing government to develop infrastructures.
  • Encouraging doctors on giving free medical treatments in rural areas.
  • Making people responsible and promoting the feeling of brotherhood.
  • Supporting in the proper mobilization of resources.

According to me, education is the most important infrastructure because education not only makes people conscious, disciplined and productive but also makes people know the importance of health and the need of nation development as well. Besides, educated people are more enlightened and produce skilled manpower needed in all the areas.

Nepal is a country of rich physical diversity. The land topography of Nepal ranges from high Himalayas in north and smooth plain in south with hills and valleys. The land is suitable for cultivation of many types of crops, wildlife and natural vegetation. There are perennial rivers from which we get drinking water, utilizing the same water, water-mills, small hydro-projects and irrigational canals. We have been provided with enough resources for industry and tourism too. These are the reason why the topography of Nepal is proved to be the boon of nature.

Though rich in resources, Nepal is underdeveloped country because for development available means and resources should be utilized properly. In case of Nepal instead of preserving and utilizing the resources they are being degraded and polluted. Raw materials cannot do anything by themselves. Skilled manpower is required to make the best use of raw materials and also political stability is needed for the execution of construction works and implementation of developmental infrastructures. In Nepal the number of illiterate people is higher and political situation is instable. Due to which Nepal is not developed although being rich in natural resource.

Education is one of the most important resource which helps us to utilize available means and resources to an optimum level and also makes people conscious, discipline and productive.

Yes, I agree with the statement that education is the first and foremost condition of development because education makes people conscious, disciplined and productive and educated. People also know the importance of their health, need of national development and also make better voting choice to help maintain good governance.

The aims of education are listed below:
  • It produces skilled manpower needed in all areas.
  • It helps us to learn how to solve problems.
  • It helps us to be helpful and responsible person.
  • To change society.
  • To make proper decisions.
  • To develop our economic conditions.
  • To get better job.
Natural resources of our country are not being used properly because of:
  • Lack of knowledge about their use and importance
  • Lack of technological access
  • Lack of coordination between the consumers and preservers
  • Lack of committed and stable government
  • Lack of enough capital and
  • Lack of proper transportation facility.

Any six ways for proper utilization of natural resources of the country are:

  • To educate, train and make the people skillful.
  • To develop technology within the country.
  • To make the conservational use of natural resources.
  • To make proper coordination between consumers and preservers.
  • To form a stable and goal oriented government.
  • To connect the entire place with the network of transportation.

Infrastructure are pre-requisites of development. The development starts with the development of infrastructure. Due to lack of infrastructures, further development activities will be impossible. As conscious citizen we can contribute as:

  • Participating in each and every works of government
  • Creating favorable environment for running the development works
  • Doing our own works ourselves because if we look for the role of government, the works can be delayed and may remain incomplete
  • Making programs for our locality and seeking some help from government
  • Utilizing natural resources maximally for greater benefit by the participation of own human resource and technology available within us.
A list of six infrastructures of development and their related aspects:
  • Education: School, technical institutions, educational institutions, universities, campuses, skill development training, etc.
  • Health: Hospital, healthy and planned family as well as controlled population.
  • Transport: Roads, bridges, airways and other regular services.
  • Communication: Telephone, television, radio, fax, post office, etc.
  • Energy: Atomic energy, hydro-electricity, gas and oil supply, thermal power etc.
  • Market: National and International trade etc.
Nepal is a country rich in natural resources. Famous mountain ranges and peaks of the world lie here. They are the center of attraction. Permanent rivers originate from these mountains. The land located at the lap of Himalayas is also equally important. The green pastures, low hills, river basins, etc. help in the life of many people. Rivers originating from the Mahabharata Range have the potential of large production of electricity. Terai is the land of fertile alluvial. It has many possibilities of development. Some minerals are found in each of the geographical regions of this country, Further, Nepal gets enough solar energy as well.
A list of any four of the natural resources found in Nepal:
  • Forest,
  • Water,
  • Minerals,
  • Soil
Forest is one the major resources found in Nepal. It has been playing a significant role for the economic development of the country. At present, approximately 37.6% of the total land area of Nepal is under forest. The forest existing in the country varies with the variation in the climate and altitude. Sub-tropical evergreen forest is found in Terai, Bhabar, Dun and Churia Range up to 1,200 m altitude. Trees are tall, thick and close together. Sal, Sissoo, Khair, cane etc. are found. Evergreen coniferous forest is confined to the higher parts of the Mahabharata Range and lower parts of the Himalayan region between 2,100 m and 3,300m altitude. The main species of trees found in this forest are varieties of pine, fir, spruce, deodar, larches, rhododendrons and popular trees.

The recent development Nepal has made in the educational sector is:

  • 10+2 and A-levels system has been introduced under Higher Secondary Education Board.
  • Grading system on SLC level.
  • More private boarding schools are established for better quality of education.
  • Establishment of university in regional basis.

The level of educational development in all the development regions is not the same because of the following reason:

  • Unequal economic strength. The rich, prosperous and economically sound people teach their children in private schools but it is not possible for economically deprived people of Mid-Western and Far-Western Regions.
  • Population preference for the establishment of schools.
  • Lack of infrastructures like transportation, communication, electricity, skilled manpower, etc and also lack of awareness in mainly Mid-Western and Far-Western Regions.

The measures needed to be applied are:

  • Health posts, health centers and hospitals should be established according to the needs of people.
  • Transportation facilities and other facilities should be provided so they will have easy access to reach the hospital, health post/centers.
  • Awareness should be generated among all the people of community so they believe in doctors rather than witch doctors.
  • Control on population and safe abortion should be maintained.
  • Cleanliness campaign should be conducted.

Health means sound mind, body and spirit. In other words we can say that the wellbeing mentally, physically, spiritually and socially is called health.
Health situation in Nepal is very poor. There are 4,275 populations per doctor and one bed in hospital for 4,360 people. Nepal has 89 hospitals, 700 health posts, 13 health centers, 3,180 sub health posts and 285 Ayurvedic dispensaries. Sixty-four infant die per thousand, maternal mortality rate is 43.9 per thousand and population growth rate is 2.24% per annum. The crude birth rate of our country is 31 per thousand while crude death rate is 9.1 per thousand.
Two women die in a day due to maternity problem. The diseases like malaria, tuberculosis, leprosy, diarrhea, dysentery, cholera, meningitis, etc are major causes of immature death among rural population. These diseases are creating more and more health problems and affecting the living standard of community due to ignorance, illiteracy and lack of proper and prompt treatment, lack of health services and environmental population.

A sick person cannot remain happy even if he is highly educated, very rich and occupies a high position in the society. Whatever he earns, is spent in visiting doctors and buying medicines. His mind is always occupied with the disease he has. He cannot be creative, an innovative or a useful thing for himself and the society. So, only a healthy person can think of some good, useful and creative ideas. Thus, a healthy mind exists in a healthy body.

The steps that to be practically taken for reaching the aims of the Interim plans 2064-2067 BS are:

  • Enough publicity and creating awareness among the local and other stakeholders.
  • Building more number of hospitals and health centers.
  • Strong governmental policy that encourages that health works to go to villages and remote districts.
  • Provision of fundamental health needs-like safe drinking water, balanced diet, sanitized environment.
  • Others can be, population control, afforestation, eco-friendly agriculture, sustainable development.

Our country is very rich in water resources. However, there is scarcity of drinking water. The following causes can be behind the scarcity of drinking water:

  • Lack of preservation of water resources
  • Lack of capital
  • Lack of appropriate plan
  • Deforestation
  • Growth of population
  • Lack of technical manpower
  • Pollution, etc.

Nepal is said to be the second largest country in water resources in the world after Brazil. However, more than one-third population has been deprived from drinking water facilities. To meet the targeted plan, Nepal government should do many things such as:

  • Nepal government should produce skilled manpower, develop processing system, focus on communication management system development and grow the construction material.
  • Nepal government should try to control the rapid urbanization, pollution and population growth.
  • Nepal government should regularly monitor for the purification of water and its resources.
  • Nepal government should check the leakage of drinking water supply, etc.

I would not drink the impure water and request him/her not to drink such impure water. Impure water harms you more than quenching thrust. I would request him/her not to give so much dirty water to anyone and not to drink myself too. Yes, I know about the ways of water filtration. We can place four pots one above another on a wooden stand. All the vessels except the last one should have small pores at the bottom. The uppermost vessel containing thick layer charcoal is to be filled with water which percolates through a hole made at its bottom, along with a piece of cloth plugged into a hole of second pot. The second pot contains a layer of sand, and third contains gravel. Water drips into each of these vessels. As a result the last pot contains the filtered water.

About 71% part of the earth is covered with water. Out of the total amount of water 97% water is in ocean and sea. It is very salty which cannot be used for drinking. Rest of 3% of water is drinkable, out of which 0.003% flows as rivers. Nepal is the second richest country in water resources. In Nepal, there are more than 6000 rivers, rivulets and streams. Many of them originate from Himalayas. We also have many lakes, ponds and springs.

However, we are facing problem of drinking water. The sources of water are not properly utilized. They are not being supplied to people. Many people depend on river water because there is no supply of drinking water. People of villages have to go a long way to fetch water. Widespread deforestation is causing the sources of water to dry up. Level of ground water is also decreasing. The settlements are increasing. Moreover, all the sources of water are becoming polluted in Kathmandu valley. There is no provision of security, control and filtration of water. So our situation is something like that of a traveler voyaging in the ocean, and dies of thirst without a drop of water even if there is water everywhere, not a single drop to drink as the poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge puts it.

The drinking water supply situation of the district in Terai in stated below:
  • The main source of water is the hand pump or tap that provides 38.6% of the total quantity of water.
  • 18.9% of water is supplied through pipes.
  • People receive 16.3% of water from the ponds or wells.
  • Springs or kuwas are also one of the water resources, and the Terai people use 11.7% of water from these resources.
  • As there are many rivers in the Terai region, people utilize 10.9% of water from them.
  • People are supplied with 3.7% of water from other sources.
To meet the aims determined by interim plan of 2064-2067 BS regarding the supply of safe drinking water, the following steps, I think, are better applicable:
  • Let people be informed about the importance of water and its use
  • Preserving the local sources of water
  • Launching large-scale water-supply projects and participate people in their operation
  • Controlling leakages and repairing the equipments timely
  • Controlling pressured migration to urban areas developing all regions equally
  • Development through "bottom up" approach for its sustainable pressure
If the electricity is not used properly we may lose our life. A large amount of property may be damaged due to fire, shock and over use of electricity. Sometimes we may be lame, dumb or deaf due to misuse of electricity.

Nepal is wealthy in water resources. We can make it good income-source if we properly utilize the available water resources. In this way, we can get economic prosperity. For this, Nepal government should motivate and promote the foreign investors. Our national capital also should be invested for this. If the government will attract the investors for investment, it can be used for the development of electricity. The government should create the investment environment with us for certain conditions especially for private companies. The government should move the program ahead even with the foreign aid. For this work there must be people's participation too. Corruption and bribery should be completely eliminated. The government should focus for the high skilled manpower.

Nepal is rich in water resources. The availability of abundant water resources have ensured that there is greater possibility of hydropower but there are some problems which are as follows:

  • Lack of capital for producing hydropower
  • Lack of skilled manpower
  • Lack of favorable government policy
  • Lack of commission
  • Lack of transportation development

The problems should not remain as problems but the solutions for the problems should be searched. Some of the solution for them can be:
  • utilizing the sources of water to generate electricity
  • giving equal emphasis to hydroelectric projects too
  • connecting every part of the country with transportation network
  • developing technology within the country
  • utilizing foreign assistance properly
  • controlling stealing, linkage and over utilization of electricity
The lists of various means of communication are
  • Radio
  • Telephone
  • Fax
  • Newspaper
  • Postal service
  • Wireless
  • Email
  • Films
  • Television
  • Mobile
  • Internet

The ways for the improvement of communication in my locality or nation are as follows:

  • Connection of electricity to every house.
  • Modernizing postal system.
  • Encouraging people to buy and use computer.
  • Fostering cellular communication.
  • Providing telephone service.

We may have seen traditional "ghatta" in village. Water is fed from a higher place to run the "ghatta". Similar is the process in big hydroelectric projects. Water is stored by making dams or tanks and is poured in big mass to the turbines installed somewhere lower lower than dam, which helps to spin the wheels within the turbines. It generates electricity which is supplied to different parts. The bigger the turbines, the bigger amount of electricity is produced.

We can give the following suggestions for the proper development of electricity:

  • Utilize the sources of water to generate electricity.
  • Give equal emphasis to small hydroelectricity projects too.
  • Connect every part with transportation network.
  • Develop technology within the country.
  • Utilize foreign assistance properly.
  • Control stealing, leakage and unnecessary use of electricity.
Untouchability is a rooted social problem in our society. It is prevalent in all parts of our country, levels of people, castes, communities, sectors etc. Untouchability is a violent superstition in our society. It cannot be controlled by peripheral efforts only. Anyhow, there can be some ways to get rid of them. They are as follows:
  • Providing education to all.
  • Consciousness programmes like seminar, gosthi, trainings, for the people of prone zone.
  • Strict rule and regulations.
  • Social boycotting and different movements against the makers.

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